Resilience, Self-Efficacy, and Mental Health

This list of peer-reviewed articles is available to members of our University community and beyond as a resource on the national literature on retention. We are committed to maintaining this list and adding to it in the future. Please send recommendations of articles to include to For additional articles on encouraging student success, please visit Literature on Student Sucess.

The information below comes directly from the referenced book or article unless acknowledged otherwise.

Abstract/Points of Interest

Misner, J. (2014). Seeking Help at a Campus Counseling Center? Take a Number. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

"Using a recent survey by the Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors, the author noted that a third of colleges reported having a wait list at some point during the 2012-2013 academic year. From 2010-2012, the maximum number of students on counseling centers' waitlist nearly doubled, from 35 to 62. During peak times--October to November--students can wait up to four weeks at some institutions." "This finding can have the biggest impact on students who need immediate attention and those who will be asked to leave the institution following a semester that is not in good academic standing."

Sparkman, L.A., Maulding, W.S., & Roberts, J.G. (2012). Non-cognitive predictors of student success in college. College Student Journal, 46(3), 642-652.

This research explored potential effects of emotional intelligence on a student's ability to persist and graduate in a 4-year period. The findings of this research suggest that the demographic most likely to graduate from a particular institution are White women, not dating, who live on campus their first semester, and one or both parents having a 4-year degree. Students who graduated scored higher in empathy than students who were enrolled and not enrolled. Social Responsibility is defined as "the ability to demonstrate oneself as a cooperative, contributing, and constructive member of one's social group and is the strongest emotional intelligence subscale predictor of graduation. Impulse Control is defined as "the ability to resist or delay an impulsive, drive, or temptation to act” and is the second highest predictor of graduation.

Hartley, M. T. (2011). Examining the relationships between resilience, mental health, and academic persistence in undergraduate college students. Journal of American College Health, 59(7), 596-604.

"In this study, the relationships between measures of interpersonal resilience, intrapersonal resilience, and mental health were examined with respect to academic and social integration." Resilience was defined as "the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging or threatening circumstances." Emotional intelligence can fall under one of many resiliency factors. It was found that there was a strong statistical correlation between the inter-and intrapersonal (tenacity, tolerance of stress, and spirituality) resilience factors and mental health.

Bray, N.J., Braxton, J.M., and Sullivan, A.S. (1999). The influence of Stress-Related Coping Strategies on College Student Departure Decisions. Journal of College Student Development, 40(6), 645-657.

The authors found that first-year student use of positive reinterpretation and growth positively influenced their degree of social integration in a residential university. Positive reinterpretation and growth refers to individual efforts to see the sources of stress in a positive way (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989).

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